- Italian Renaissance
A period of rebirth in Italian history that covered the 15th and 16th centuries developed a culture that spread across Europe and marked the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. Renaissance was the era of painting, architecture, sculpture, music, philosophy, science, technology, and exploration. People like Galileo (discovered telescope) and Leonardo da Vinci (painter of the Mona Lisa) emerged during the Italian revival. It was the Renaissance that told the human race, the Sun is placed, at the center of the universe rather than the Earth. The events of the Renaissance triggered the Age of Discovery and the Scientific Revolution.
2. French Revolution
Before the French revolution, the people were divided into various classes (social groups). The clergy (church leaders), the noble, and the commoners. The commoners paid most of the taxes, while the nobility lived lives of luxury and got all the high ranking jobs. There was socio-economic inequality in society. It was when the French revolution happened people of the world understood the meaning of nationalism, equality.
The French revolution completely changed the social and political structure of France (and Europe consequently). Absolute anarchies were replaced by constitutional monarchies. Feudalism was put to an end. French revolution brought new ideas to the world including liberty and freedom of the commoner as well as the abolishment of slavery and the rights of women. The French revolution is referred to as the foundation of modern-day democracy by some. Although the revolution ended with the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, the ideas and the reforms did not die. French revolution has helped to shape many modern day European governments.
3. Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution was a transition to new manufacturing processes, and it taught the trade to the world. The transition included the replacement of hand production methods by machines, iron production process, chemical production process. The industrial revolution led to the rise of the mechanized factory system. It began in Great Britain and was so effective that by the mid-18th century, Britain was the world’s leading commercial nation. New machines, new power sources, and novel ways of organizing work made existing industries more productive and efficient.
The inventions of the transcontinental railroad (steam locomotive), steam engine, cotton gin, electricity (and the electric telegraph) permanently changed society.
Some economists have said the most important effect of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history.
4. World War I
Social life changed: women had to run businesses while the men were at war. The war changed the economic balance of the world, leaving European countries deep in debt and making the U.S. the leading industrial power and creditor in the world. WW1 boosted research in technology because better transport and means of communication gave countries an advantage over their enemies. Aviation and medicine saw a lot of reforms.
After WW1, the need for an international body of nations that promotes security and peace worldwide became clear. This caused the founding of the League of Nations.
5. World War II
Many problems arose after the war was over. One of them was the division of Berlin and later the formation of the Berlin wall(Mauer).
World war 2 led to the fall of the gigantic British Empire(the largest empire in history occupying 24% of Earth’s total land area). Britain was left essentially bankrupt resulting in the independence of its colonies(India, Ireland, Israel).
During World War II, four of the Allied powers — the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China — agreed to create an organization that should work for peace. In, April 1945 fifty countries signed a charter and gave birth to the United Nations.
UNESCO, WHO, and the International court of justice came into existence.